Night Lives

Appendix and Acknowledgements

Appendix 1: Terminology

‘Night Time Economy’, ‘Evening and Night Time Economy’, and ‘Twilight, Evening and Night Time Economy’

The term Night Time Economy (NTE) is used in this report for brevity whilst recognising that in some studies the terms Evening and Night Time Economy,1 Twilight and Night Time Economy2 and other variations are used in the academic and policy literature. In recent years and with the advent of ’24 hour cities’, nightclubs have also operated as daytime dance venues, with a growth in ‘after clubs’ and ‘breakfast clubs’, as well as most recently, nightclubs operating predominantly during daytime hours. Notably the newly opened Printworks, currently the largest dance club in London, has usual operating hours of 11am to 11pm. The benefits of such daytime operations are that drug and alcohol use appears to be lower than at night time dance events, public transport is more easily available to customers, and local residents are less obstructive regarding noise, traffic and footfall concerns.

‘Club Drugs’, ‘Dance Drugs’ and ‘Party Drugs’

The history of the terminology used to describe the drugs consumed in the night time economy itself reflects the history of the nightclub and also the history of the academic study of the subject, from acid house parties and raves to club cultures. Initially the term ‘dance drugs’ was used to describe the drugs taken by people when dancing at acid house and rave events.3 During the late 1990s, there was a switch in terminology from ‘dance drugs’ to ‘club drugs’ in recognition that people were taking drugs within nightclub settings and not just at outdoor and unlicensed raves and warehouse parties.4 In the UK this shift in terminology from ‘dance drugs’ to ‘club drugs’ in part was a reflection of the shift in location (with raves moving from the fields to indoor nightclubs and ‘super clubs’ after the 1994 Criminal Justice and Public Order Act). It also reflected the expansion in the palette of drugs consumed across clubbing weekends from the ‘primary dance drugs’ (ecstasy, amphetamines and LSD) of the early acid house and rave scene, to also include ‘secondary dance drugs’ (such as ketamine, cannabis, GHB/GBL and Viagra) from the late 1990s onwards, for which the primary motive might not be to enhance dancing. Increasingly ‘dance drugs’ did not seem an appropriate term for this growing range of drugs taken across the course of a clubbing weekend and not necessarily to facilitate prolonged dancing.5 As dance club culture itself expanded and commercialised from the mid 1990s onwards, so it also established itself as a legitimate area of academic study – after a due time lag in academic and policy recognition – coming to be known as ‘Club Studies’ in the 2000s.6 More recent, and particularly outside the UK, the term ‘party drugs’ has come to be favoured in recognition of the wider locations for club drug use beyond dance clubs, such as festivals, beach parties, house parties and chill out or after parties.7 The verb “to party” has also evolved to become a euphemistic term for the consumption of party drugs.

Multi Agency Safety Testing

Multi Agency Testing Service (MAST) is a term coined by Measham with reference to the Loop’s drug safety testing introduced to UK festivals in 2016. Drug safety testing allows members of the public to anonymously submit samples of concern and receive their test results in real time, often as part of a counselling session. With MAST there are specific emphases on a) multi agency collaboration and b) professional partnerships, with all stakeholder groups directly involved in the service delivery from design and implementation through to evaluation. Samples are analysed by chemists in pop-up labs at leisure events and receive their test results as part of individualised harm reduction brief interventions delivered by qualified and experienced healthcare professionals. Furthermore, and distinct from some European, North American and Australasian drug safety testing services, integral to MAST is that firstly, it is not a peer to peer service, and secondly, test data is shared on a daily basis with on- and off-site agencies including police and public health, and to the wider public via social media, for maximum benefit.

 

 

Appendix 2: Methodology

A number of innovative initiatives to reduce drug-related harm in the NTE were identified from the literature and emerging practice, primarily taking examples from either music festivals or European countries. 36 unstructured, anonymous interviews were conducted with a snowball sample of UK stakeholders from the police, public health, licensing, local policymaking and the night time industry, including venue owners and managers, promoters and industry body representatives. From these interviews, the concerns of stakeholders, and the real and perceived barriers to implementation of these initiatives were identified, and their utility and feasibility in a UK NTE context discussed.

Expert opinion was also sought in the form of 14 unstructured, anonymous interviews with harm reduction specialists, lawyers, NTE policy experts and academics, on how the identified barriers to implementation of initiatives could overcome. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Through these 50 interviews, four initiatives to reduce drug-related harm emerged. Options for integrating these initiatives into wider public health and NTE strategies were then identified. From these interviews, a series of practical recommendations to help relevant stakeholders implement the four initiatives have been proposed.

Interviewees were contacted directly or sourced through Volteface’s and The Loop’s networks of contacts, with snowball sampling used to recruit further participants. Interviewees that have given their consent have been named in the acknowledgements, but were asked to contribute their concerns and opinions anonymously.

 

Appendix 3: FOI Request Data 

Freedom of Information requests were sent to all 116 NHS Trusts in the UK, asking for the number of Accident and Emergency department attendance records that featured each of the words ‘cocaine’, ‘ecstasy’ and ‘ketamine’, for the years 2013 – 2017. 43 NHS Trusts denied or did not respond to the requests. Of the 73 NHS Trusts that replied, 19 did not keep the requested data and 54 replied with figures, shown below. As these responses represent 47 percent of NHS Trusts, the authors present this data as a sufficiently representative sample of the national picture.

NHS trust

Cocaine

2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Aintree University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 110 106 113 115 147
Barnsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 17 16 17 12 4
Barts Health NHS Trust 28 57 89 98 122
Birmingham Women’s NHS Foundation Trust 1 2 1 0 2
Calderdale and Huddersfield NHS Foundation Trust 17 14 21 34 35
Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 412 529 630 625 799
Colchester Hospital University NHS Foundation Trust 12 18 22 32 28
Dartford and Gravesham NHS Trust 10 6 2 7 5
Dorset County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
East Sussex County Healthcare NHS Trust 13 28 36 34 54
Epsom and St Helier University Hospitals NHS Trust 0 0 0 13 15
Gateshead Health NHS Foundation Trust 5 9 11 15 23
Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 18 22 27 19 36
Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Heart Of England NHS Foundation Trust 13 8 28 29 41
Hinchingbrooke Health Care NHS Trust 40 50 88 41 76
Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 20 34 50 50 70
Liverpool Women’s NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Luton and Dunstable University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 45 55 60 79 109
Maidstone and Tunbridge Wells NHS Trust 16 15 17 25 26
Medway NHS Foundation Trust 64 77 112 34 30
Mid Cheshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 0 7 7 0 9
Mid Essex Hospital Services NHS Trust 0 0 0 0 0
North Bristol NHS Trust 6 14 15 22 10
North Cumbria University Hospitals NHS Trust 28 18 33 44 47
Northern Devon Healthcare NHS Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust 23 30 31 69 83
Poole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 8 19 18 30 29
Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust 49 38 38 53 62
Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals NHS Trust 27 15 10 17 31
Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust 138 150 255 276 321
Salisbury NHS Foundation Trust 16 18 36 37 55
Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 8 12 19 25 20
South Tees Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 8 5 18 32 25
South Tyneside NHS Foundation Trust 50 55 116 115 162
Southend University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 8 16 15 27 29
Southport and Ormskirk Hospital NHS Trust 23 39 52 24 40
Stockport NHS Foundation Trust 113 194 262 227 259
Tameside Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 9 10 12 21 15
Taunton and Somerset NHS Foundation Trust 6 8 7 0 0
The Hillingdon Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 0 1 2 0 0
The Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 15 18 27 28 42
The Whittington Hospital NHS Trust 4 8 10 22 39
Torbay and Southern Devon Health and Care NHS Trust 2 0 7 28 32
University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust 0 0 0 0 0
University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust 119 131 168 174 173
University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust 122 142 181 189 207
University Hospitals Of Morecambe Bay NHS Foundation Trust 67 88 79 81 162
West Suffolk NHS Foundation Trust 7 0 0 55 86
Western Sussex Hospitals NHS Trust 20 28 33 23 31
Worcestershire Acute Hospitals NHS Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Wrightington, Wigan and Leigh NHS Foundation Trust 3 5 3 9 11
Wye Valley NHS Trust 47 54 94 98 148
Total 1767 2169 2872 2988 3750

NHS trust

Ecstasy

2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Aintree University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 8 5 5 9 9
Barnsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 0 1 0 3 0
Barts Health NHS Trust 0 0 0 6 11
Birmingham Women’s NHS Foundation Trust 0 1 0 0 0
Calderdale and Huddersfield NHS Foundation Trust 0 2 0 2 1
Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 71 44 77 83 85
Colchester Hospital University NHS Foundation Trust 7 6 0 0 0
Dartford and Gravesham NHS Trust 2 2 0 1 0
Dorset County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
East Sussex County Healthcare NHS Trust 1 0 2 0 3
Epsom and St Helier University Hospitals NHS Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Gateshead Health NHS Foundation Trust 0 1 3 4 5
Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 2 2 1 0 1
Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Heart Of England NHS Foundation Trust 0 2 1 3 3
Hinchingbrooke Health Care NHS Trust 1 1 4 3 4
Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 0 3 1 2 1
Liverpool Women’s NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Luton and Dunstable University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 3 4 4 7 8
Maidstone and Tunbridge Wells NHS Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Medway NHS Foundation Trust 3 7 12 0 0
Mid Cheshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Mid Essex Hospital Services NHS Trust 0 0 0 0 0
North Bristol NHS Trust 2 2 4 5 3
North Cumbria University Hospitals NHS Trust 2 3 7 3 2
Northern Devon Healthcare NHS Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust 0 0 0 0 8
Poole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 7
Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals NHS Trust 13 7 4 8 6
Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 15 14 15
Salisbury NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 0 2 3 1 3
South Tees Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 1 0 1 5 2
South Tyneside NHS Foundation Trust 7 4 7 4 11
Southend University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 5 2 0 1 6
Southport and Ormskirk Hospital NHS Trust 6 1 2 6 2
Stockport NHS Foundation Trust 6 12 22 18 13
Tameside Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Taunton and Somerset NHS Foundation Trust 1 0 0 0 0
The Hillingdon Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
The Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 13 1 4 5 4
The Whittington Hospital NHS Trust 0 0 1 3 1
Torbay and Southern Devon Health and Care NHS Trust 0 0 1 1 3
University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust 7 18 20 16 10
University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust 13 10 22 10 6
University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust 5 8 23 26 20
University Hospitals Of Morecambe Bay NHS Foundation Trust 0 7 9 6 8
West Suffolk NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Worcestershire Acute Hospitals NHS Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Wrightington, Wigan and Leigh NHS Foundation Trust 0 2 0 0 3
Wye Valley NHS Trust 7 0 3 5 7
Total 188 162 258 261 271

NHS trust

Ketamine

2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Aintree University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 4 10 4 8 10
Barnsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 38 17 6 5 3
Barts Health NHS Trust 6 12 20 33 77
Birmingham Women’s NHS Foundation Trust 0 1 1 0 0
Calderdale and Huddersfield NHS Foundation Trust 2 2 1 2 1
Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 126 114 80 133 139
Colchester Hospital University NHS Foundation Trust 5 0 0 0 0
Dartford and Gravesham NHS Trust 2 0 0 0 0
Dorset County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
East Sussex County Healthcare NHS Trust 4 0 0 9 5
Epsom and St Helier University Hospitals NHS Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Gateshead Health NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 4 5 2 4 3
Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Heart Of England NHS Foundation Trust 1 2 0 0 1
Hinchingbrooke Health Care NHS Trust 9 15 15 5 18
Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 6 6 1 3 6
Liverpool Women’s NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Luton and Dunstable University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 12 6 3 3 4
Maidstone and Tunbridge Wells NHS Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Medway NHS Foundation Trust 17 0 7 0 0
Mid Cheshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Mid Essex Hospital Services NHS Trust 0 0 0 0 0
North Bristol NHS Trust 2 2 0 0 0
North Cumbria University Hospitals NHS Trust 8 2 4 6 7
Northern Devon Healthcare NHS Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust 6 0 0 7 15
Poole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust 19 27 18 20 18
Salisbury NHS Foundation Trust 7 0 7 0 11
Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 0 2 1 3 1
South Tees Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 3 1 0 1 2
South Tyneside NHS Foundation Trust 9 6 5 5 4
Southend University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 5 2 3 0 5
Southport and Ormskirk Hospital NHS Trust 0 1 2 2 1
Stockport NHS Foundation Trust 22 13 17 28 22
Tameside Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Taunton and Somerset NHS Foundation Trust 8 9 7 0 0
The Hillingdon Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
The Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust 0 5 4 0 3
The Whittington Hospital NHS Trust 1 2 3 0 7
Torbay and Southern Devon Health and Care NHS Trust 0 0 1 3 5
University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust 0 0 0 0 0
University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust 30 36 39 48 48
University Hospitals Of Morecambe Bay NHS Foundation Trust 46 102 109 120 96
West Suffolk NHS Foundation Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Worcestershire Acute Hospitals NHS Trust 0 0 0 0 0
Wrightington, Wigan and Leigh NHS Foundation Trust 0 1 0 0 1
Wye Valley NHS Trust 22 17 34 30 33
Total 427 420 395 478 548

Funding

Funding for this report was crowdsourced from private donors.

Disclaimer

Any initiative must operate within the law. Nothing in this report is to be taken as giving legal advice which should be obtained, as appropriate, from an independent legal practitioner.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank VICE UK for sharing web analytics of written articles in their Safe Sesh campaign.

The following people have contributed to this report, but its conclusions and recommendations do not necessarily represent their individual views:

Alan D Miller, Chair, NTIA
Alistair Turnham, Founder, MAKE Associates
Dr Ciaran O’Hagan, former Outreach Worker, Lifeline, Release and Basics Network
Chris Brady, Senior Harm Reduction Worker, The Loop
Daniel Sumner, Director, Pretty Pretty Good
David Hillier
Ed Morrow, External Affairs Manager, Royal Society for Public Health
Fraser Swift, Principle Licensing Officer, Manchester City Council
Guy Jones, Trustee, Psycare UK
Harmony Blake, Licensing, Festival Republic
Prof Harry Sumnall, Professor of Substance Use, Liverpool John Moores University
(Hayley) Munroe Craig, Founder and Director, Karmik
Dr Ian Garber, BCCSU
Jeremy Keates, Manager, This is Clapham BID
Jo Cox-Brown, Founder and Director, NightTimeEconomy.com, Jocee & Co Ltd.
John McCracken
Jon Collins
Jon Drape, Group Production Director, Broadwick Live
Josh Torrance, Re:Form
Karen McCrae, Program Coordinator, Implementation and Partnerships, BCCSU
Dr Kenneth Tupper, Director of Implementation and Partnerships, BCCSU
Kira Weir, Crew
Luke Laws, General Manager, fabric
Neil Woods, Chair, LEAP UK
Mark Davyd, CEO, Music Venue Trust
Mark Lawrence, CEO, AFEM
Mark Shaffer, Director, Five Miles
Dr Matthew Bacon, Lecturer in Criminology, University of Sheffield
Matt Lewin, Licensing Barrister, Cornerstone Barristers
Michael Linnell, Linnell Communications
Dr Monica Barratt, NHMRC Early Career Research Fellow, University of New South Wales
Paul Bunt, Director, Casterton Event Solutions Ltd.
Paul Douglas, Douglas Licensing
Pete Jordan, Director, MADE Festival & Weird Science Ltd.
Philip Kolvin QC, Head of Chambers, Cornerstone Barristers
Dr Prun Bijral, Medical Director, CGL
Rachel Kearton, Assistant Chief Constable, Suffolk Police, and lead for Alcohol Harm and Vulnerability, and Corrosive Attacks, National Police Chiefs Council
Rick Bradley, Operations Manager, Addaction
Rudi Fortson QC, 25 Bedford Row
Dr Russell Newcombe, Director, 3D Research
Sacha Lord, Managing Director, Ugly Duckling Group
Sue Nelson, Executive Officer, Institute of Licensing
Sylvia Oates, Founder and Director, NightTimeEconomy.com, Jocee & Co Ltd.
Dr Tim Turner, Senior Lecturer in Criminology, Coventry University
Dr Will Haydock, Senior Health Programme Advisor, Public Health Dorset, and Visiting Fellow, Bournemouth University

Additionally, a number of contributors wished to remain anonymous.

 

Produced by Hanway Associates for the All-Party Parliamentary Group for Drug Policy Reform, Durham University, The Loop and Volteface

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